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|▒ LENIN COLLECTED WORKS VOL.03
|V. I. LENIN 지음
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| 초판일 - 2008-01-01
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|● 책 소개
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALISM IN RUSSIA * UNCRITICAL CRITICISM ⓕ
|● 목 차
|THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALISM IN RUSSIA. The Process of the Formation of the Home Market for Large-Scale
Preface to the First Edition............ 25
Preface to the Second Edition............ 31
Chapter I. T h e T h e o r e t i c a l M i s t a k e s o f t h e N a r o d n i k E c o n o m i s t s........ 37 I. The Social Division of Labour.......... 37
The increase in the number of industries 37-38.—The creation of a home market as a result of the social division of labour 38.—The manifestation of this process in agriculture 38-39.—The views of the Narodnik economists 39.
II. The Growth of the Industrial Population at the Expense of the Agricultural.......... 40
The necessary connection between this phenomenon and the very nature of commodity and capitalist economy 40-41.
III. The Ruin of the Small Producers........ 41
The mistaken view of the Narodniks 41.—The view of the author of Capital on this subject 42.
IV. The Narodnik Theory of the Impossibility of Realising Surplus-Value.............. 43
The substance of the theory of Messrs. V. V. and N.—on: its erroneous character 43-45.—The “foreign market” is wrongly dragged into the problem of realisation 46.—The superficial estimation of the contradictions of capitalism by the writers mentioned 47.
V. The Views of Adam Smith on the Production and Circulation of the Aggregate Social Product in Capitalist Society and Marx’s Criticism of These Views 47
Adam Smith’s omission of constant capital 47-49.—
The influence of this error on the theory of the national revenue 49-51.
VI. Marx’s Theory of Realisation............ 51
The basic premises of Marx’s theory 51-52.—The realisation of the product under simple reproduction 52-53.—The main conclusion from Marx’s theory of realisation 54-55.—The significance of productive consumption 55-56.—The contradiction between the urge towards the unlimited growth of production and the limited character of consumption 56-58.
VII. The Theory of the National Income....... 58
Proudhon 59-60. — Rodbertus 60-62. — Contemporary econmists 62.—Marx 63-64.
VIII. Why Does the Capitalist Nation Need a Foreign Market?................... 64
The causes of the need for a foreign market 64-66.—
The foreign market and the progressive character of capitalism 66-67.
IX. Conclusions from Chapter I........... 67
Resume of the propositions examined above 67-68.—
The essence of the problem of the home market 69.
Chapter II. T h e D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e P e a s-a n t r y................... 70 I. Zemstvo Statistics for Novorossia........ 70
Economic groups of the peasantry 70-71.—Commer-cial agriculture and the purchase and sale of labour-power 72.—The top group; the concentration of land 72-73, and of animals and implements 73, the higher productivity of labour 74-75.—Mr. V. V.’s argument of the decline in horse-ownership 75.—The hiring of farm workers and Mr. V. V.’s argument on this phenomenon 76-77.—The bottom group of the peasantry; the leasing of land 77-78.—
The middle group, its instability 79-80.—Messrs. V. V. and Karyshev on peasant rentings 80-84.—The attitude of the Narodniks to Mr. Postnikov’s researches 84-85.
II. Zemstvo Statistics for Samara Gubernia...... 85
Data concerning the farms of the different peasant groups in Novouzensk Uyezd 85-87.—The land held and the land in use by the different groups 87-88.—Mr. Karyshev on land renting and grain prices 88-90.—Wage-labour; the creation of a home market by the differentiation of the peasantry 90-92.—The rural proletariat in Samara Gubernia 92-93.
III. Zemstvo Statistics for Saratov Gubernia...... 93
Data concerning the farms of the different groups 93-94.—The hiring of farm workers 94-95. — “Industries” in Zemstvo statistics 95-96.—Rentings 96-97.—The arguments on land renting advanced by Messrs. Karyshev,
N.-on, and Maress 97-101.—A comparison of Kamyshin and other uyezds 101-102.—The significance of the classification of peasant households 102-105.
IV. Zemstvo Statistics for Perm Gubernia.......106
Data concerning the farms of the different groups 106-107.—The hiring of farm workers and day labourers and its significance 108-110.—The manuring of the soil 110.— Improved implements 110-111.—Commercial and industrial establishments 111-112.
V. Zemstvo Statistics for Orel Gubernia......112
Data concerning the farms of the different groups 112-113.—Incompleteness of the picture of differentiation from the data for Orel Gubernia 113-115.
VI. Zemstvo Statistics for Voronezh Gubernia.....115
Methods of classification in Voronezh abstracts 115-116.—Data for Zadonsk Uyezd 116-117. — Industries 117118.
VII. Zemstvo Statistics for Nizhni-Novgorod Gubernia 119
Data concerning groups of farms for three uyezds 119-122.
VIII. Review of Zemstvo Statistics for Other Gubernias 122
Novgorod Gubernia, Demyansk Uyezd 122-123.—Cher-nigov Gubernia, Kozeletsk Uyezd 123.—Yenisei Gubernia 124.—Poltava Gubernia, three uyezds 125.—Kaluga Gubernia 126.—Tver Gubernia 126-127.
IX. Summary of the Above Zemstvo Statistics on the Differentiation of the Peasantry.........127
Methods of marking the summary 127-129.—Combined table and chart 130-133 and 140-141.—Examination of the various columns of the chart 134-139.—Comparison between different localities as to the degree of differentiation 140-141.
X. Summary of Zemstvo Statistics and Army-Horse Census Returns................141
Zemstvo Statistics for 112 uyezds of 21 gubernias 141-143.—Army-horse census returns for 49 gubernias of European Russia 143-144. — Significance of these data 144-145.
XI. A Comparison of the Army-Horse Censuses of 18881891 and 1896-1900 .............. 146
Data for 48 gubernias of European Russia 146-147.— Statistical exercises of Messrs. Vikhlyayev and Chernenkov 147-148.
XII. Zemstvo Statistics on Peasant Budgets......148
Character of the data and methods of treating them 148-150.—(A). General results of the budgets 150-157.—Mag-nitude of expenditures and incomes 150.—Components of expenditures 151. —Components of incomes 152-153—
Cash portions of the budgets 154-155.—The significance of the taxes 155-156.—(B). A characterisation of peasant farming 157-162.—General data about the farms 157-158.—Property and implements 159.—Farm expenditure 160-161.—Income from agriculture 161.—An apparent exception 161-162.—(C). A characterisation of the standard of living 162-172.—Expenditure on food in kind 162-163.—Expenditure on food in cash 163-164.—Remaining expenditures on personal consumption 165.—Cash expenditure on personal and productive consumption 165-166.—
Mr. N.-on about the top “stratum” of the peasantry 166-167.—A comparison between the standard of living or rural
workers and peasants 167-169.—Methods of Mr. Shcherbina 170-172.
XIII. Conclusions from Chapter II..........172
The significance of commodity economy 172.—1) Capitalist contradictions within the village community 172173. — 2) “Depeasantising” 173-174. — 3) Characterisation of this process in Capital 173-176.—4) The peasant bourgeoisie 176-177.—5) The rural proletariat. The European type of allotment-holding rural worker 177-180—6) The middle peasantry 181. — 7) The formation of a home market for capitalism 181.—8) Increasing differentiation; significance of migration 182-183.—9) Merchant’s and usurer’s capital. The presentation of the problem in theory. The connection between these forms of capital and industrial capital 183-186.—10) Labour-service and its influence on the differentiation of the peasantry 186-187.
Chapter III .T h e L a n d o w n e r s’ T r a n s i t i o n f r o m C o r v e e t o C a p i t a l i s t E c o n o m y. . . . 191 I. The Main Features of Corvee Economy.......191
The essence of the serf system of economy and the conditions for it 191-193.
II. The Combination of the Corvee and the Capitalist Systems of Economy.............193
The remnants of the old system after the Reform
193-194.—The labour-service and the capitalist systems
194-195; their relative incidence 195-197.—The transition from the labour-service system to the capitalist 197-198.
III. Description of the Labour-Service System .... 198
Types of labour-service 198-199.—Rentings in kind and their significance 199-200.—The payment of labour under labour-service 201-203.—Personal dependence under labour-service 203-204.—General estimation of labour-service 204-205.
IV. The Decline of the Labour-Service System . . . 205
Two types of labour-service 205-206.—The significance of the differentiation of the peasantry 206-208.—View of Mr. Stebut 209.—Views in various publications 209-210.
V. The Narodnik Attitude to the Problem.......210
The idealisation of labour-service 210-211.—Mr. Kablukov’s argument 211-215.
VI. The Story of Engelhardt’s Farm........215
The original condition of the farm and the nature of the gradual changes made in it 215-219.
VII. The Employment of Machinery in Agriculture . . . 219
Four periods in the development of agricultural machinery production 219-220.—Incompleteness of official statistics 220-223.—Data on the employment of various agricultural machines 223-228.
VIII. The Significance of Machinery in Agriculture . . . 228
The capitalist character of the employment of machinery 228-230.—Results of the employment of machinery 230-235.—The inconsistency of the Narodniks 235-237.
IX. Wage-Labour in Agriculture...........237
“Agricultural outside employments” 237, their significance 237-238, their scale 239-240.—Number of agricultural workers in all European Russia 240-242.
X. The Significance of Hired Labour in Agriculture 242
The conditions of agricultural workers 242-243.— Specific forms of hire 243-245.—The conditions of workers of small and big employers 245-246.—First elements of public control 246-248. — The appraisal of agricultural
migration by the Narodniks 248-251.
Chapter IV .T h e G r o w t h o f C o m m e r c i a l A g r i-c u l t u r e..................252 I. General Data on agricultural Production in PostReform Russia and on the Types of Commercial Agriculture..................252
The production of cereals and potatoes in 1864-1865, 1870-1879, 1883-1887, 1885-1894, 252-253. — Potato sowing and its significance 253-254.—Areas of commercial agriculture 255.—Mr. Kablukov’s arguments 256.
II. The Commercial Grain-Farming Area......257
The shifting of the principal centre of cereal production
257.—The significance of the outer regions as colonies 257-
258.—The capitalist character of agriculture in this area 259-261.
III. The Commercial Stock-Farming Area. General Data on the Development of Dairy Farming.....261
The significance of stock farming in the different areas 261-262. — The calculations of Messrs. Kovalevsky and Levitsky 263.—The development of cheese-making 264-266.—
The incompleteness of official data 266.—Technical progress 266-267.
IV. Continuation. The Economy of Landlord Farming in the Area Described............267
The rationalisation of agriculture 267-268.—“Amal-gamated dairies” and their significance 268-270.—The formation of a home market 270.—The migration of agricultural workers to the industrial gubernias 271.—The more-even distribution of jobs throughout the year 271-273.—
The small cultivators’ dependence and its estimation by-Mr. V. V 273-275.
V. Continuation. The Differentiation of the Peasantry on the Dairy-Farming Area..........275
The distribution of cows among the peasants 275-276.— Details of St. Petersburg Uyezd 276-278.—“Progressive trends in peasant farming” 279-280.—The influence of this progress on the poor 280-282.
VI. The Flax-Growing Area............282
The growth of commercial flax-growing 282-284.— Exchange between different types of commercial agriculture 284. — “Extremes” in the flax area 285.—Technical improvements 285-287.
VII. The Technical Processing of Agricultural Produce 287
The significance of the factory or technical system of farming 287-288.
C O N T E N T S
The extent of agricultural distilling 288-289.—The development and the significance of potato distilling 289292.
2) Beet-Sugar Production...........
The growth of sugar-beet production 291-292.—The progress of capitalist agriculture 292-294.
3) Potato-Starch Production.........
Its growth 294-295.—Two processes in the development of this branch of production 295.—The starch “industry” in Moscow Gubernia 295-297 and in Vladimir Gubernia 297-298.
4) Vegetable Oil Production.........
The dual processes of its development 298.—Oil pressing
as a cottage industry 299-300.
5) Tobacco Growing.............
VIII. Industrial Vegetable and Fruit Growing; Suburban Farming...................
The growth of commercial fruit growing 304 and vegetable growing 304-305.—Peasant vegetable growers in the St. Petersburg, Moscow and Yaroslavl gubernias 305-307.—The hothouse industry 307.—Industrial melon growing 307-309. — Suburban farming and its characteristics 309-310.
IX. Conclusions on the Significance of Capitalism in Russian Agriculture...............
1) On the transformation of agriculture into enterprise 310.—2) The specific features of capitalism in agriculture 311-312. — 3) The formation of a home market for capitalism 312-313.—4) The progressive historical role of capitalism in Russian agriculure 313-318.
X. Narodnik Theories on Capitalism in Agriculture. “The Freeing of Winter Time”.........
The narrow and stereotyped character of this theory 318.—Its omission of highly important aspects of the process 318-323.
XI. Continuation. — The Village Community. — Marx’s View on Small-Scale Agriculture.—Engels’s Opinion of the Contemporary Agricultural Crisis . . . .
The Narodnik’s wrong presentation of the problem of the village community 323-325.—Their misunderstanding of a passage in Capital 325-326.—Marx’s estimation of peasant agriculture 326-327. — His estimation of agricultural capitalism 327.—Mr. N. —on’s inappropriate quotation 327-330.
Chapter V . T h e F i r s t S t a g e s o f C a p i t a l i s m i n I n d u s t r y............... I. Domestic Industry and Handicrafts.......
The remants of domestic industry 331.—The extent of the prevalence of handicrafts 332-333, their basic features 333-334.
II. Small Commodity-Producers in Industry. The Craft Spirit in the Small Industries.........
The transition from handicrafts to commodity production 334-335.—The fear of competition 335-337.
III. The Growth of Small Industries after the Reform. Two Forms of This Process and Its Significance . . . 338
Causes of the growth of small industries 338.—The settlement of industrialists in the outer regions 339.—The growth of small industries among the local population 339-341.—The shift of capital 342-343.—The connection between the growth of small industries and the differentiation of the peasantry 343.
IV. The Differentiation of the Small Commodity-Producers. Data on House-to-House Censuses of Handicraftsmen
in Moscow Gubernia..............344
Presentation of the problem 344.—The method of processing the data 344-346.—Combined table and chart 347 and 349.—Conclusions: wage-labour 348, 351, productivity of labour 351-353, incomes 355.—The petty-bourgeois structure of handicraft industries 355.
V. Capitalist Simple Co-operation.........356
Its significance and influence on production 356-359.—
VI. Merchant’s Capital in the Small Industries.....360
The conditions that give rise to the buyer-up 360-361.—Tradeswomen in the lace industry 362-364.— Examples of marketing organisation 364-366.—Views of the Narodniks 366-367.—Forms of merchant’s capital 367-369.
VII. “Industry and Agriculture”...........369
Data of the table 369-370.—The agriculture of wageworkers 371.—“Land labourers” 371-372.—Other data concerning industry and agriculture 372-376.—Length of the working period 376.—Resume 376-378.
VIII. “The Combination of Industry with Agriculture” 378 The Narodnik’s theory 378.—The forms in which industry is combined with agriculture and their diverse significance 378-380.
IX. Some Remarks on the Pre-Capitalist Economy of
Our Countryside...............380 Chapter VI .Capitalist Manufacture and Capi-t a l i s t D o m e s t i c I n d u s t r y......384 I. The Rise of Manufacture and Its Main Features . . 384
The concept of manufacture 384, its dual origin 384385 and significance 385.
II. Capitalist Manufacture in Russian Industry .... 386
1) The Weaving Industries.........386
2) Other Branches of the Textile Industry. The Felt Trade............390 3) The Hat-and-Cap and Hemp-and-Rope Trades 393
4) The Wood-Working Trades........397
5) The Processing of Livestock Produce. The Leather and Fur Trades.........402
6) The Remaining Livestock Processing Trades 409
7) The Processing of Mineral Products .... 413
8) The Metal Trades. The Pavlovo Industries 415
9) Other Metal Trades...........419 10) The Jewellery, Samovar and Accordian Trades 422 III. Technique in Manufacture. Division of Labour and Its Significance................427
Hand production 427-428.—apprenticeship 427-28.— Division of labour as a stage preparatory to large-scale machine industry 428-429, its influence on the workers 429431.
IV. The Territorial Division of Labour and the Separation of Agriculture from Industry........431
Mr. Kharizomenov’s opinion 431-432.—Non-agricul-tural centres 432-434.—The transitional character of manufacture 434-435.—The raising of the cultural level of the population 434-435.
V. The Economic Structure of Manufacture.....435
The circumstances of production 435-436.—How Mr. Ovayannikov and Kharizomenov describe it 436-438.
VI. Merchant’s and Industrial Capital in Manufacture. The “Buyer-up” and the “Factory Owner” .... 438
The connection between the big and the small establishments 438-440.—The error of the Narodniks 441.
VII. Capitalist Domestic Industry as an Appendage of Manufacture.................441
Its incidence 441-442, its characteristic features 442445, the conditions making for its spread 445-446, its significance in the theory of the surplus-population 446-448.
VIII. What Is “Handicraft” Industry?........448
Some aggregate statistics on handicraftsmen 448-450.—The predominance of capitalistically employed workers 450-451.—The vagueness of the term “handicraft” and the abuse of it 451-453.
Chapter VII. T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f L a r g e - S c a l e M a c h i n e I n d u s t r y...........454 I. The Scientific Conception of the Factory and the Significance of “Factory” Statisitics.......454
II. Our Factory Statistics.............456
There sources 456.—Publications of the 60s 457-458.— The specific character of the Military Statistical Abstract 459-461.—Mr. Orlov’s Directory 461-462.—The Collections of the Department of Commerce and Manufactures 463-464. — The Returns for Russia for 1884-85; Mr. Karyshev’s errors 464-465.—Data of gubernia statistical committees 466.—The List 466.—Is the number of factories in Russia growing? 467-468.
II. An Examination of Historical-Statistical Data on the Development of Large-Scale Industry .... 468 1) Textile Trades.............469
2) Wood-Working Industries........474
3) Chemical, Livestock Product and Ceramic Industries...............475
4) Metallurgical Industries.........
5) Food Industries............
6) Excise-Paying and Other Trades.....
IV. The Development of the Mining Industry . . . .
The Urals, their specific features 484-488.—The South 488-491.—The Causasus 491-492.—The big and small mines in the Donets Basin 492-494.—The significance of the data on the development of the mining industry 494496.
V. Is the Number of Workers in Large Capitalist Enterprises Growing?...............
Data for the years 1865, 1879, 1890 496-499.—Mistaken Method of the Narodniks 499-507.
VI. Steam-Engine Statistics............
Data for the years 1875-1878 and 1892 507-509.
VII. The Growth of Large Factories.........
Data for the years 1866, 1879, 1890 and 1894-95 509-514.—The largest enterprises in factory industry and in the mining industry 514-515.—The errors of Mr. N. —on 515-517.
VIII. The Distribution of Large-Scale Industry ....
Data on the leading centres of factory industry in the years 1879 and 1890 518-519.—Three types of centres 519-521.—The classification of the centres 521-523.—The growth of rural factory centres and its significance 523-525.
IX. The Development of the Lumber and Building Industries..................
The growth of the lumber industry 525-526; its organisation 526-530.—The growth of capitalism in the building industry 530-533.
X. The Appendage to the Factory..........
XI. The Complete Separation of Industry from Agriculture
The error of the Narodniks 536-537.—Moscow Zemstvo sanitary statistics 537-541.
XII. Three Stages in the Development of Capitalism in Russian Industry...............
The connection between all the stages 541-543.— Specific technical features 543.—The growth of capitalist relationships 543-544.—The character of the development of industry 544-545.—The separation of industry from agriculture 545-548. —Differences in living conditions 548-550.—The growth of the home market 550-551.
Chapter VIII . T h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e H o m e M a r-k e t.................... I. The Growth of Commodity Circulation......
The development of the railways 552-553, water transport 553-554, commerce and the banks 554-557.
II. The Growth of the Commercial and Industrial Population...................557
1) The Growth of Towns..........557
2) The Significance of Home Colonisation . . 562
3) The Growth of Factory and of Commercial
and Industrial Townships and Villages . . 566
4) Non-Agricultural Outside Employments . . 568
Non-agricultural outside employments 568-581, their size and growth 568-576, their progressive role 576-579, the appraisal of them by Narodnik writers 579-581.
III. The Growth of the Employment of Wage-Labour . . 581
Approximate number of wage-workers 581-583.— Capitalist surplus-population 583.—The error of the Narodniks 583-586.
IV. The Formation of a Home Market for Labour-Power 586
The main movements of wage-workers in connection with the size of wages 586-589.—The formation of a home market 589-590.—Mr. N. —on’s “theory” 590-591.
V. The Significance of the Border Regions. Home or Foreign Market?...............591
Capitalism’s urge for expansion 591-592.—The example of the Caucasus 593-594.—Two aspects of the process of the formation of a market 594-596.
VI. The “Mission” of Capitalism..........596
The increase in the productivity of social labour 596-598.—The socialisation of labour 598-600.—The cause of differences with the Narodniks 600-601.
I. Combined Table of Statistics on Small Peasant Industries of Moscow Gubernia (to Chapter V, p. 345).................. 600-601
II. Table of Statistics on the Factory Industry of European Russia (to Chapter VII, p. 456)....... 601
III. The Chief Centres of Factory Industry in European
Russia (to Chapter VII, p. 519).........603
UNCRITICAL CRITICISM. ( Regarding Mr. P. Skvortsvo’s Article “Commodity Fetishism” in N a c h n o y e O b o z r e n i y e ,
No. 12, 1899)..................... 609
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